Botox for bladder
Botox is a popular botulinum toxin type A injectable that is most popular for its ability to temporarily reduce the appearance of crow’s feet, forehead lines, and glabellar lines. Unknown to many, Botox is also indicated for a range of medical conditions such as urinary incontinence (caused by overactivity related to neurologic conditions such as multiple sclerosis), cervical dystonia, and spasticity. Doctors also commonly use it for poorly-managed axillary hyperhidrosis (excessive sweating), strabismus, and blepharospasm (related to dystonia). Apart from that, Botox is also effective in treating overactive bladder (OAB). In fact, FDA included overactive bladder as 1 of the approved indications of Botox in 2013. Botox injections are able to provide symptomatic relief, helping to alleviate urinary frequency, urgency, and incontinence. It is especially useful in adult patients who respond inadequately (or are intolerant) to conservative treatments su ...
Chemical peels involve the use of chemical solutions to induce controlled destruction at specific levels of the skin. This leads to tissue regeneration and the sloughing of dead cells, thereby enhancing the skin health of the body and face.
Since 1950, chemical peels have been widely used in dermatology. Over time, this treatment has evolved greatly, with the advent of newer technologies such as alpha hydroxy acids (AHAs) and trichloroacetic acid (TCA), which are designed to penetrate different depths of the skin. In this article, we will outline the properties of various deep and medium chemical peels.
Classification of chemical peels
The classification of chemical peels is currently based on their depth of penetration. Deep chemical peels are able to penetrate into the reticular dermis, while medium peels can penetrate into the papillary dermis. In contrast, superficial chemical peels are able to penetrate into any depth of the skin in the epidermal layer, including ...
Periocular dermatochalasis is characterized by eye bags and an excessively loose skin. It often affects the upper eyelids, resulting in the loss of elasticity in the skin fold. Apart from that, it also causes hooding (i.e. where skin fold drops down and outwards).
Redundant or excessive subcutaneous tissue and upper eyelid skin may be formed due to hereditary factors or involutional age changes. For example, orbital fat prolapses (particularly in the medial fat pad in the upper eyelid) through the attenuated orbital septum may result in an unsightly bulge. Other causes of eyelid dermatochalasis include blepharochalasis (inflammation of the eyelids), elastolysis (a rare acquired or inherited connective tissue disorder characterized by inelastic skin), Cutis laxa (CL), xanthelasma, renal failure, and thyroid eye disease. In this article, we will discuss the main causes of sagging eyelids and the treatment options available.
Main symptoms of derma ...