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Botox is a popular injectable that contains botulinum toxin type A as its active ingredient. Available in more than 75 countries worldwide, Botox can be used for both cosmetic and medical purposes. These purposes include moderate to severe forehead lines due to frontalis muscle activity, crow's feet (or lateral canthal lines) and glabellar lines caused by procerus/corrugator muscle activity. At the same time, it has also been used for penis and scrotum enhancement. Clinically, Botox has been approved by the FDA for the treatment of overactive bladder; spasticity due to cerebral palsy or spinal injuries; migraines; cervical dystonia; and urinary incontinence due to detrusor overactivity associated with neurologic diseases, such as multiple sclerosis. Botox has also been used to treat TMJ syndrome, acne, and vaginismus.
What is vaginismus?
Vaginismus (also referred to as vaginism) is a medical condition that affects the ability of a woman to experience vaginal penetrati ...
If there’s one thing universal across cultures, it is the never-ending quest for the perfect body. While diet and exercise can help to reduce cellulite and stubborn fat, they oftentimes require following strict rules and they are not always effective. This prompts patients to search for alternatives that are more convenient and effective. A few decades ago, this would mean excisional or surgical body contouring surgeries such as liposuction, brachioplasty, and abdominoplasty (all of which are highly invasive). Today, there are many other safer, less invasive treatment options. These new treatment techniques tend to be more affordable, making them the perfect alternative to the conventional surgical body contouring procedures. They effortlessly get rid of stubborn inches that even the most intense training or the strictest of diets cannot remove. In this article, we will discuss about different non-surgical body contouring treatments, including the newer treatment mod ...
Non-hyaluronic acid dermal fillers
Some dermal fillers do not contain hyaluronic acid. For example, calcium hydroxylapatite (CaHA), Poly-L-lactic acid (PLLA), collagen, and polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA).
1. Polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA)
PMMA is formulated as non-absorbable microspheres. Once administered into the subdermal layer, it stimulates fibroblasts, thereby encapsulating the microspheres and augmenting the volume of tissues through fibroplasia.
Artefill contains PMMA suspended in bovine collagen. Being the only PMMA filler approved by the FDA, Artefill is indicated for the treatment of acne scars and nasolabial folds. However, earlier versions of the filler have been reported to cause granuloma formation, with a high incidence rate of 2.5%. Some patients may be allergic to bovine collagen; therefore, it is advisable to perform skin testing before the injection.
2. Poly-L-lactic acid (PLLA)
PLLA is a type of absorbable polymer that promotes collagen regenera ...